The Korean technology company shipped 93 million phones in the first quarter - 10 million more than Nokia in the same period - according to research firm Strategy Analytics.
Its range of Galaxy devices fuelled the surge, which saw Samsung selling around 9 million more smartphones in the first month of the year than Apple.
Samsung’s new Galaxy device, rumoured to be named the S3, is to be unveiled next week, which is likely to boost sales even further.
The company also credited its Galaxy Note tablet device for the rise.
Operating profit rose 98% year-on-year to 5.85 trillion Won (£2.76bn), while sales were up 22% to 45.27 trillion Won (£24.7bn).
Samsung’s telecoms business now makes up 73% of its operating profit as demand in the TV market and other digital appliances markets experienced a slowdown quarter on quarter.